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NOSH ' P IU lore thy holy shrine I kneel; 4i Protect and guide my trembling barkj u As through the storms ol life I sail When dark, portentious clouds ut caro ' O'er my dispaiiing soui impcn; : Or ft cl misfoitunc, fraught with tear, 4 And rankling giict my bosom tend: 44 Then, sad heni:htd, lone, and diat, 44 Thrice hallow M Friendship's cheer ing ray, Sweet soother of my soul, appear ; 44 l isp I and chase the glotmaway 4l bus, when tht- adverse tide runs sttoo 14 Let thv efiicient powct et,nd; 4 Oh!
Samuel Welch, new living at How, in this State, about 8 miles fn m thisplare, has advanced more than eiJit months in the one hundred and tvc.
Wc latily visited this oid u at , and found him sitting in his rhair iu ore sent wife, now 8" jerrs of age bnsoo htrg his white locks with her comb, end exhibiting the utmost interest in I is tU fate H e is now unable to walk. Uc ; ant! He is in prison rather above tht nd'icMo size, of ;re ian features, with daik jn ; etrating eyes His locks arc cl a clayed white, looking us if they had zltc uy mouldered in the gavc. His fran.
J we feel a momentary chill at th. His uuntal l. I ' 1 ami in- irai eu. Its smiles are thovc of ufTtction; its pro fessions thove of hypocrisy The man of opuh n- e i. Dicit me scripsisse, He says that I wrote or did write. Dixit me scripsisse, He said that I had writtem. Dicet me scripsisse, He shall say that I have written, or didwrite, Dicit me scripturum esse , He says that I will write. Dixit me scripturum esse , He said that I would write.
Dicet me scripturum esse , He shall say that I will write. Dicit me scripturum fuisse , He says that I would have written. Dixit me scripturum fuisse , He said that I would have written. Dicet me scripturum fuisse , He shall say that l would have written. But he must be careful to make the par ticiples agree with them in gender, number, and case. That when the preceding verb is of the present or future tense, the future of the infinitive with esse, it is remdered by shall or vi! When it is made up by fui, it is frequently Englished by was, wast, vere, vert ; as, Roma fuit cafita, Rome was taken ; as is also what is called the pluperfect, with eram and essem ; as, labor finitus erat, the labour was finished ; si labor finitus esset, if the labour were finished.
A GREAT part of the passive voice, and some of the ac tive is made up of two of its own participles, and the auxiliary verb sum, of which you have the full conjugation, f. Y [ The Participle ; sim or fuerim: T Infinit.
J The Participle?. Having, f. To put this matter in the clearest light I am able, I must pre mise another division of the tenses, viz. Of the first sort are the present, imperfect, and future-imperfect ; of the second sort are the present, imperfect, and future-perfect.
See page From this division of the tenses, together with what we have formerly said, we are furnished with an easy me thod of distinguishing all the parts of the passive. Thus, for instance, let the subject of discourse be the building of a house. But when I make use of the participle-perfect, I always signify a thing completed and ended ; but with these subdistinctions: And thus we have nine different times, or complications of times, without con founding them with one another.
But then, how comes it to pass that these are so frequently used promiscuously? I answer, that this proceeds from one or more of these four reasons: JBecause it very frequently happens in discourse that we have no occasion particularly to consider these various relations and complications of times ; and it is the same thing to our purpose whether the thing is or was done, or a-doing ; or whether it was done just now, or some time ago ; or whether another thing was or shall be contemporary with, or prior to it ; and the matter being thus, we reckon ourselves at liberty to take several parts of the verb at random, as being secured not only of being under stood, but also that, in these circumstances, whatever we pitch on, even when examined by the rules above, shall be found liter ally true.
It is usual with us to state ourselves as present with, and as it were, eye-witnesses of the things we relate, though really they were transacted long before ; whence it is that we frequently use the present instead of some time past. It is to be remarked, that therc are some verbs, the action whereofis in some sense finished when begun ; in which case it wi;l some times be all one whether we use the passing or past tenses.
And 4. The present tense which strictly speaking, is gone before we pronounce it is generally taken in a larger acceptation, and sometimes used for the future, when we signify that the execu tion is very near, or according to Perizonius when, together with the action, we take in also the preparation to it. The bre vity we are confined to, will not allow us to illustrate these things with examples.
But by them I think we may account for the promiscuous usage of the tenses, in both voices ; and what eannot be reduced to these, seems to be an abuse of the lan guage, and being very rarely to be met with, and perhaps only among the poets, ought not to be made a common standard. I shall only add for a proof, that these tenses are not always to be used indifferently, that when we signify a thing to be just now finished, we cannot use fui or fuerim or fuisse, 5ut sum, sim, and e88e.
Besides those parts which are thus made up, all the other parts may be resolyed into its own participles and the verb sum, though their significations are not pregisely the same ; as, Amo amabam amavi amaveram amabo.
Sum amans eram amans fui amans fueram amans ero amans or Stlm amatutus. Sum amatus eram amatus ero amatus amatus sim amatus essem. The participle in rus with the verb sum is frequently used instead of the future of the indicative, especially if furfiose or intentiom is signified ; as, frqfecturus sum or firqficiscar, I will go, or I am to go ; and with sim and essem, instead of the future imperfect, or pluperfect of the subjunctive ; as, non dubito quin sit facturus, I doubt not but he will do it.
JVon dubitavi quin esset facturus, I doubted not but he would do it ; and not quin fecerit, or faceret, or fecisset. We have not joined ero with fuero for the future of the subjunctive, because we thought it incongruous to couple words of different moods ; though it must be owned that it comes near er in signification to the future of the subjunctive, than that of the indicatiye ; as Ov.
But that a prete rite time is there insinuated, is owing, not to the word erit, but to the preterite participle with which it is joined, as they learn edly argue. See Aulus Gellius, lib.
We have omitted the termination minor in the second per son plural of the imperative, not thinking it fit to make that an ordinary standard, as the common Rudiments do which is to be found only once or twice in Plautus, Epid.
Facto ofiere arbitraminor. And Pseud. Pariter progrediminor. Prohibessit, Cic. To these some add jusso for jussero, in that of Virg. According to which rule jubeo must have formed jubesso not jusso. The future of the infinitive passive is made up of the first supine and iri the infinitive passive of eo: And therefore it is not varied in numbers and genders, as the , parts made up of the participle with sum. But the supine with ire is not the future of the infinitive active as some teach ; for such phrases as these, amatum ire, doctum ire, are rather of the present than future tense.
The participle in dus with esse and fuisse, is not properly the future of the infinitive passive, as is commonly believed: For it does not so much import futurity, as necessity, duty, or merit. For though Sanctius, and Messieurs de Port Royal contend that this partici ple is sometimes used for simple futurity, yet I think Perizonius and Johnson have clearly evinced the contrary.
It is to be noted, that the imperative mood wants the first person both singular and plural, because no man can or needs command or exhort himself: Or, if he does, he must jostle him self out of the first into the second person, as in that of Catullus, speaking to himself, at tu, Catulle, destinatus obdura, but do you, Catullus, continue obstinate.
Ve facias, do it not rather than ne fac. And sometimes the futu e of the subjunc tive ; as, tu videris, see you to it. JWe diaceris, Dont say that.
And sometimes also the future of the indicative ; as, non occides, thou shalt not kill ; for me occide, or occidito. Sed valebis, mea que negotia videbis. But it is to be remarked that none of these are pro per imperatives ; for to the first is understood, oro, rogo, fieto, gr the like with ut ; as also to the second, with ut understood, or ne expressed ; and the third is only a command by consequence, because of the authority, influence, or power of the speaker.
For which reason, and to keep the moods from interfering with one another, we have excluded these from the imperative: Though the common rudiments take in the first, and Alvarus the second and third. However, it is observable that we shew most civility and respect when we use the subjunctive, and most authority by the future of the indicative, and nto of the imperative ; which, last is the ordinary strain in which laws are delivered.
But this rule is not always followed. AN English verb hath only two tenses, distinguished by different terminations, and both in the active voice, viz. The present is the verb itself, and the pre terite is commonly made by adding ed to it, or d when it ends in e ; as, fill, filled ; love, loved.
An English verb hath different terminations for the persons 9f the singular number, The present hath three or four. The preterite hath only two ; the first commonly ending in ed, and the second in edst or dst: But the third person singular of the preterite, and all the persons plural, botl of it and the present, cannot otherwise be distinguished than by the nominatives before them ; which therefore can never be omitted as in the Latin.
We have two participles, the present ending always in ing, and the preterite ending regularly in ed, but very frequently in em, and t. There are a great many irregular English verbs ; but it is to be noted, l. That that ir regularity relates only to the termi nation of the preterite tense, and the passive participle.
That it reaches only such words as are native and originally English. That it is to be found only in words of one syllable, or derived from words of one syllable. These irregularities may be reduced to the following heads: The d is changed into? But when a long vowel goes before f, it is either shortened, or changed into a short one ; as, kept, slept, wept, crept, swept, leapt, from keep, sleep, weep, creep, sweep, leap ; as also sometimes before. When the present ends in d or t, the preterite is some times the same with it ; as, read, cast, hurt, burst, hit, quit ; and when two vowels precede, the last is left out ; as, spread, spred ; lead, led ; feed, fed ; bleed, bled ; meet, met.
When a conso nant comes before d, it is sometimes changed into t ; as, bend, bent ; lend, lent ; send, sent ; rend, rent ; gird, girt. Most of the other irregular verbs may be comprehended under the following lists: Such as have their preterite and participle passive the same.
Such as have the preterite and participle passive different. These preterites, bare, share, sware, tare, ware, clave, gat, be gat, forgat, brake, spake, slang, sprang, swang, wan, stank, sank, are seldom used.
That when the verb ends in one consonant, that consonant is for the most part doubled before ing, ed, est, edst, and eth ; as, worship, vorshipping, worshipped, worshippest, worshippedst, worshippeth ; As also before em ; as, bid, bidden.
That the apostrophus, which was become too common in Eng lish verbs ; as, lov'd, lov'st, for loved, lovest, begins now to be disused by the most polite writers in prose ; but poets still use it, though not so much as formerly. That the preterite active and the particip!
When it hath nothing be fore it but the nominative alone, or have or had with it, it is the preterite agtive ; but when it bath any part of the helping verb am, it is the parti ciple passive. That shalt and will, by Mr. Brightland, are thus distinguished ; In the first person simply shall foretells ; In vill a threat, or else a promise dwells.
AShall in the second and the third does threat ; JVill simply then foretells the future feat. By Mr. Turmer thus: VVill imports the will or purpose of the person it is joined with ; shal! L e Formatione Verborum. Ab o formantur am et em. From o are formed am and enm. Ab i formantur ram, rim, 2. From i, ram, rim, ro, sse, ro, sse, et 8sem. Ab um formantur u, u8, et 3. All other sorts from re do omnes ; nempe, bam, bo, rem, come ; as, bam, bo, rem, a, e, a, e, i, ms, dus, dum, di, do.
In every complete verb there are commonly four principal parts, viz.
The first which is therefore called the theme or root of the verb gives origin to the whole verb, either mediately or immediately. But the third con jugation camnot bv reduced to any general rule, and there are a great inany exceprioris in the other three, which are therefore to be i-orned by daiiy practice, till the scl;olar is advanced to that pari oi grauia inar ihat t reats particularly of them. From ti.
From the perfect of the indicative are formed the pluper fect of it, the perfect, pluperfect, and future of the subjuuctive, and the perfect of the infinitive. From the first supine are formed the last supine, the par ticiple perfect, and the future active. From the present of the infinitive are formed the imper fect of the indicative, the future of the same when it ends in bo, viz.
That verbs in io of the third conjugation retain i before munt, nunto, ebam, am, ens, endus, endum ; but lose it in the present of the infini tive, and imperfect of the subjunctive. That the last person plural of the imperative may be formed. NotE 3. That the passive voice is formed from the same tenses of the active, except where sum is used by adding r to o, or changing m into r. NoTE 4. That the present of the infinitive passive of the third conjuga tion may be formed by taking s from the second person of the present of the indicative active ; as, legis, legi ; or, when the verb is deponent, by changing or, or ior, into i; as, proficiscar, proficisci; morior, mori.
That the present of the infinitive active, and the second per son of the indicative and imperative passive in re, are always the same. NoTE 6. NoTE 7. That where any of the principai parts are wanting, those parts are commonly wanting that 'comeT from them.
And they suppose, likewise, all deponent words of old to have had the active voice, and consequently supines, though now lost. NotE 8. There are eight verbs in eo, of the first conjugation, viz.
There are twenty-four in io of the first, viz. For to conjugate one verb by the example of another, we have no more to do, but instead of the essential part of the one which is all that.
Only we are to advert, 1. That in the preterites and supines, and the parts that come from them, we are to reckon all before i and um for the body of the verb, adding the usual syllables to it, as in the active voice of lego. In verbs in io we are to retain or omit the i, as in note 1. But though this may be the more natural way, yet the other is more easy and uniform. De Verbis irregularibus. Sum, fui, esse, To be.
Sit He may or can be. Sint They may or can be. Fuerit He may have been. Fuerint They may have beefi. Fuisset He might have been. Fuissent They might have been. Fuerit He shall have been. Fuerint They shall have been.
Esse Per. Fuisse To be. Tohave been. Sunto Let them be. Futurus About to be. Pro-sum prod-es prod-est ; pro-sumus prod-estis pro-sunt. Prod-esto ; prod-este. Possum potes potest ; possumus potestis possunt. Poteram poteras poterat ; poteramus poteratis poterant. Potui potuisti potuit ; potuimus potuistis potuerunt ty.
Potueram potueras potuerat; potueramus potueratis potuerant. Potero poteris poterit ; poterimus poteritis pouerunt. Possim possis possit; possimus possitis possint. Possem posses posset ; possemus possetis possent. Potuerim potueris potuerit ; potuerimus potueritis potuerint.
Potuissem potuisses potuisset ; potuissemus potuissetis potuissent.
Potuero potueris potuerit ; potuerimus potueritis potuerint. The rest wanting. Eo, ivi, itum, ire, To go. Eo is it imus atis.
Ibam ibas ibat ibamus ibatis ibant. Iwi ivisti ivit ivimus ivistis iverunt v. Iveram iveras iverat iveramus iveratis iverant. Ibo ibis ibit ibimus ibitis ibunt. Irem ires iret iremus iretis irent. Iverim iveris iverit iverimus iveritis iverint. Ivissem ivisses ivisset ivissemus ivissetis ivissent. Ivero iveris iverit iverimus iveritis iwerint.
Iturus esse v. Iens, Gem. Iturus -a -um. That in general eo is a verb of the fourth conjugation. That ofold, verbs ofthe fourth had their imperfect in ibarn and future in ibo, of which there are many examples in Plautus and Terence, and some in Virgil and Horace. After the same manner the compounds of eo are conjugated, viz. But ambio is a regular verb of the fourth conjugation.
Queo, I can, and nequeo, I cannot, are conjugated the same way as eo ; they only want the imperative and the gerunds ; and the participles are scarcely in use. Volo, volui, velle, To will, or be willing.
Volo vis vult volumus vultis volunt. Thev uill exchange IIlKJ. Delivered at the Distillery. Mav 22, For c n.. In our former papers we have descrioed most fully, the alimentary produce, the pioduce in raw articles of manufacture, and 'he mineral pioduce oi Mexico In our paper of the 1 4th, we described the amount and the particulars ot its actual manufactures, and par ticularly ot those in wool and cotton,ihose : of tobacco and gunpowder, and those of jewelry and cochineal.
Our present sub ject is tne commerce of..
We commence with the toimei ol these branches, by which it will appear that tinstate of trade, society, and internal communication and supply in this vast kingdom, are very different from what they have been represeined The main heads of internal commerce, are the navigable rivers and canals, the roads, the modes of interna conveyance, the subjects of such interior tiade, and its degree and amount. Mexico has no can. But neither of these rivers is much used in the actual state of Mexico, t' ouh, ir hM nr-ent condition ol independence, they may shortly become the means of UiiiUMiig opulence and cultivation through her vast territories.
About 50 miies of the from Mexico to Vera Cniz is a piccipitous descent fom the mountains to the coast, anil the sami may be s -id of the mad from Mexico to Acapulco. The mode of conveyance toi all good is nv beaK of burthen, carrying packs, mules and horses. Wheel carnages are not used for the transport of goods; but the roacU aie covered with thousands of mnes.
Mexican roads have thus a most singular scenery all activity, life and busintss? The g re art ariety of produce, arising from the diflt- cm emiKues ui vni vr. Whilst one of the Mexican p. Thus each supplies the other with its peculiar luxury, and ansing to the different elevation of two adjoining provinces, one beng as it were on the top of a mountain, tm other half way down the side : nothing cin be more extraordinary than the shortlistance between two climates directly op posite, and two species of ptoduce of the same opposite character.
You have Europe and Asia, England and Italy, Sweden and Jamaica, all within a day's joutney of e tch other u Nothing more surprised me in Mexico than this. HI found the country, where I happened to be, too cold at breakfast, if the i gs reminded me of the bank of the Thames, l or the snows reminded me of Yorkshire -it was my own fault if I did not dine under the shady palm.
Ut on inqinni.
Ail thrst people and horses were n ruing along with lift, spiiii and eaiety, beneath a e.