Data communications and networking I Behrouz A Forouzan. - 4th ed. p. em. Network Models PART 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. DATA. COMMUNICATIONS. AND. NETWORKING. Fourth Edition. Behrouz A. Forouzan. DeAnza College 1 2 3 4 5 6 78 9 O DOC / DOC O 9 8 7 6. ISBN FOROUZAN BEHROUZ A. FOROUZAN Data Communications and 4 Data Representation 5 Data Flow 6 NETWORKS 7 Network Criteria.
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Data communications and networking I Behrouz A Forouzan. - 4th ed. p. em. - ( McGraw-HilI Chapter 6 now contains multiplexing as well as spreading. 2. Data Communications and Networking Fifth Edition Behrouz A. Forouzan D Data Representation 5 Data Flow 6 NETWORKS 7 Network. Behrouz A. Forouzan, Data Communications and Networking 5E, 5th Edition, Tata Accessing the Internet Multiplexing and Demultiplexing.
A user datagram is a transport-layer data unit. It decapsulates a data unit going to the application layer.
In this case, the data unit is a message. The data unit should belong to layer 4. In this case, it is a user datagram.
The transport-layer packet needs to include two port numbers: source and destination port numbers. The transport-layer header needs to be at least 32 bits four bytes long, but we will see in Chapter 24 that the header size is normally much longer because we need to include other pieces of information.
At the application layer, we normally use a name to define the destinationcomputer name and the name of the file we need to access.
An example is something somewhere. At the network layer, we use two logical addresses source and destination to define the source and destination computers.
These addresses are unique universally. At the data-link layer, we use two link-layer addresses source and destination to define the source and destination connections to the link. The answer is no. It only means that each of the transport-layer protocols such as TCP or UDP can carry a packet from any application-layer protocol that needs its service. However, a transport-layer packet can carry one, and only one, packet from an application-layer protocol. We do not need a link-layer switch because the communication in this case is automatically one-to-one.
A link-layer switch is needed when we need to change a one-to-many communication to a one-to-one. We do not need a router in this case because a router is needed when there is more than one path between the two hosts; the router is responsible for choosing the best path at each moment.
Problems The services provided in part a and part b are the opposite of each other. Layer 1 takes the ciphertext from layer 2, inserts encapsulates it in an envelope and sends it. Layer 1 receives the mail, removes decapsulates the ciphertext from the envelope and delivers it to layer 2. The services provided in part a and part b are the opposite of each other.
Layer 2 takes the plaintext from layer 3, encrypts it, and delivers it to layer 1.
Layer 2 takes the ciphertext from layer 1, decrypts it, and delivers it to layer 3. In 10 years, the number of hosts becomes about six times 1. This means the number of hosts connected to the Internet is more than three billion. The PPTs available as a resource was very useful in teachnig the subject. It covered all the topics of our syllabus except "Socket Interface".
Then it differentiates between data and signals, data as those stored in computer in binary form and the signals that travel in the media.
It explains well the analaog and digital transmission. The transmission happen over the media, so the transmission media have been covered well in the book both the type of media and the impairments.
Data link layer covers the link control and the access mechanism staring from framing to flow and the error control. The flow control have been conceptually covered well in chapters 11 and chapter 12 with suitable examples Network layer is covered in four chapters covering the logical addressing, subnet masking. Then the IPv4 and IPv6 packet formats are explained. The examples covered are very useful for analyzing and designing the networks.
I, at time got so much involved in reading those examples, that I noted them and covered in my lectures.