TOWARD A PSYCHOLOGY OF BEING Second Edition ABRAHAM H. MASLOWVAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD COMPANYNEW YORK CINCINNATI TORON. TOWARD. A PSYCHOLOGY. OF BEING. Second Edition. ABRAHAM H. MASLOW. Jnm;I VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD. ~. New York. piece at a time of the larger theoretical structure. It is a predecessor to work yet to be done toward the construction of a comprehensive, systematic and.
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Toward a psychology of being by Abraham H. Maslow, , Van Nostrand edition, in English - 2d ed. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. In its first edition, Abraham Maslow's " Toward a . I do not recommend this version, download the DRM-free pdf version for the. Toward a Psychology of Being and millions of other books are available for site .. I do not recommend this version, download the DRM-free pdf version for the.
If one identifies oneself with the emerging spiritual consciousness and transfers the self-identity to each higher level, then 3. There are advantages and drawbacks of each attitude. What is important is to recognize that the three attitudes are three ways of realizing the same glorious Reality, of attaining the same sublime goal. Perhaps this inclusion of such distinct attitudes and their equal potential in helping us reach great inner freedom and joy is what makes psychosynthesis so fruitful.
Will as energy In psychosynthesis, the will does not correspond to the Victorian idea as something stern and oppressive. Assagioli describes the fully developed human will as having four aspects: the strong will, skillful will, good will, and transpersonal will p. Most people associate the will with the single aspect of strong will.
We need strong will to take necessary action, such as to do something we do not want to do or stop doing something that we want to do.
But strength, when used alone without the other aspects, can actually cause harm to oneself and others.
Assagioli uses the metaphor of driving a car to explain the difference between strong and skillful will.
With only strong will at your disposal, you would stand behind the car and try to move it by pushing with all your strength. As mentioned earlier, transpersonal will is the will of the transpersonal Self i. Part of the work of a psychosynthesis counselor is to help clients to come into relationship with all four aspects of their will. In this way, the personal self and the will are intimately connected; that is, they are in relationship with one another.
The idea that the Self is both universal and individual can be equated to the Christian understanding that we are all created in the image of God; that is, we all reflect the universal higher qualities of God through our unique individual identities.
Spiritual psychosynthesis is the journey towards strengthening the I—Self relationship or, in Christian terms, our relationship to God. Relationship is one of the keys to all psychosynthesis work and is further discussed in the next section.
He stated that the will 7 holds a central position of prominence. Open image in new window Fig. Working in right relations Throughout psychosynthesis, the essential dynamic of relationship permeates. The psychosynthesis counselor is continually working in relationship with the client, guiding the client to a fuller relationship to his or herself, others, and ultimately the Self.
At the same time, the counselor is aware of her own relationship to herself, her client, whatever is manifesting in the counseling room, and the Self.
Right relations deeply depend on the synthesis of two guiding principles: love and will. This points unmistakably to the urgent need for the integration, the unification of love with will.
The next step is to then awaken and manifest the higher aspects of both.
Finally, we must learn how to alternate between love and will in such a way that each arouses and reinforces the other. The task is to ultimately develop love and will in balance and strength.
In other words, to be compassionate is not enough; we need acts of compassion, a definite synthesis of love and will. Psychosynthesis views working in right relations as such an act. The union of love and will fosters and acts upon the growth and evolution of individuals who are in relationship. Relationship as a manifestation of love and will is one of the most essential qualities of psychosynthesis counseling work. The psychosynthesis orientation in the counselor-client relationship is an attempt to create a real, open, and honest space for love and will to synthesize and allow for personal and spiritual growth.
Through such a therapeutic relationship, the client can learn to relate to his or her inner and outer worlds and to God in a new way.
The goal of developing personally and spiritually within such a therapeutic alliance can be challenging for both client and counselor, as they inevitably enter into the realities of transference and countertransference Jung ; Spiegelman and Mansfield However, through such a therapeutic alliance, new and more satisfying ways of being in relationship can emerge for the client and, in turn, impact his or her other relationships.
According to psychosynthesis, each of us has the responsibility to become aware of our situation and choices, act with good will, and work towards positive growth—individually, socially, and universally. Ultimately, one of the long-range goals of psychosynthesis is to establish a full, permanent sense of relationship with all beings Haronian ; Roex The goal of all psychosynthesis counselors is to become an empathic mirror for clients in order to facilitate the blossoming of their authentic personality.
In psychosynthesis, those people who empathically attune to others are able to manifest the I—Self connection as an external unifying center.
Ultimately, the goal in therapy is for the client to internalize that unifying center by rebuilding their own I—Self connection as they heal earlier wounds and redeem their authentic personality. All this healing and growth can only happen in right relationship. This concept of right relations corresponds precisely with the ultimate goal of any pastoral psychologist—to be able to become sensitive to others, comprehend and experience difference, maintain an authentic self-identity, and form a relationship with God.
Psychosynthesis techniques Psychosynthesis counseling techniques include guided visualization, daily self-reflection, role-playing, ideal models, symbolic images, storytelling, free-drawing, and dream work.
Although psychosynthesis counseling sessions might look similar to other forms of counseling, such as psychodynamic, person-centered, or Gestalt, the distinct aspect of psychosynthesis is the idea that there is a Self and that all counseling is ultimately trying to achieve the recovery of the Self Whitmore Evans ; R.
Evans Evans , pp. Throughout the process of psychosynthesis, the will is continually evoked and strengthened. Skillful will is needed to disidentify from those feelings, thoughts, and roles that dominate us, and good will is vital when selecting the most appropriate behavior in the present context.
Ultimately, psychosynthesis counselors work within a flexible yet structured framework that helps clients to examine and ruminate over the situations that trigger their problems, the interpersonal relationships involved, the physical sensations and emotions evoked, the attitudes and beliefs stimulated, and the values that may be hidden and implicit Assagioli ; Nguyen ; Whitmore The self-identification exercise The self-identification exercise, also referred to as the disidentification exercise or the body-feeling-mind meditation, is a fundamental psychosynthesis technique for working with all aspects of the will.
For example, after acknowledging that we have feelings, disidentification occurs when we further understand that we are not our feelings, but, in fact, are much more than this single component of ourselves. Often these subpersonalities are polar in nature, acting contrarily with antagonistic traits.
We might be carefree and spontaneous in one situation and frozen in another. Perhaps most essential is the notion that a higher quality lies at the core of each subpersonality, no matter what its outer behavior might be.
These higher qualities, like truth, strength, and courage, are considered to be transpersonal, universal, and timeless. However, these qualities can often be degraded or distorted when expressed through a subpersonality.
By working through the subpersonality model process, the roles that we play in our lives can become synthesized into a unifying center of authenticity. In addition, a more societally-focussed role for professionals is envisaged, in which a central part of the job is to influence local and national policies and practices that impact on well-being. Summary If health services are to give primacy to increasing well-being, rather than to treating illness, then health workers need new approaches to working with individuals.
For mental health services, this will involve the incorporation of emerging knowledge from recovery and from positive psychology into education and training for all mental health professionals, and changes to some long-established working practices. Background The World Health Organisation WHO declares that health is "A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity "[ 1 ].
However, creating health-oriented rather than illness-oriented services has proved rather more difficult than the clarity of this declaration would suggest. Efforts to generate a science of illness have been very successful, with shared taxonomies to identify types of illness, established and validated interventions to treat and manage these identified illnesses, and clinical guidelines and quality standards available to increase efficiency and equity.
These successes have not been mirrored by equivalent advances in applying the science of well-being within health services.
The typical health worker will know a lot about treating illness, and far less about promoting well-being. In this article we use mental health services as an exemplar of the issue, and explore how mental health services could more effectively promote well-being. Our central argument is that mental health workers will need new approaches to assessment and treatment if the goal is promoting well-being rather than treating illness.
Well-being is becoming a central focus of international policy, e. Canada [ 2 ] and the United Kingdom [ 3 ]. In the same way that tertiary prevention is an important health promotion strategy, well-being is possible for people experiencing mental illness.
We will discuss two new emerging areas of knowledge which are highly complementary, and provide a counter-balance to the traditional focus of mental health services on deficit amelioration. We will identify how they link and differ , and then explore their implications for mental health workers.
Specifically, we will argue that assessment and treatment of the individual will need to change if the goal is promoting well-being rather than treating illness, and that there are also broader challenges for mental health professionals to become more outward-looking in their view of their role, and to construct their job as more than working with individuals.
We will conclude that a focus on improving social inclusion, becoming social activists who challenge stigma and discrimination, and promoting societal well-being may need to become the norm rather than the exception for mental health professionals in the 21st Century. Discussion The WHO declaration about mental health is also clear: it is "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community " [ 1 ].
A relative lack of workforce skills in promoting well-being is particularly important in mental health services, since mental disorders directly impact on personal identity and ability to maintain social roles.
This distinction between mental illness and mental health is empirically validated, with only modest correlations between measures of depression and measures of psychological well-being, ranging from Why is this distinction important?
Because it points to the need for mental health professionals to support both the reduction of mental illness and the improvement of mental health.
This will involve the development of further skills in the workforce. These skills will be based on two new areas of knowledge, each of which have emerged as distinct scientific areas of enquiry only in the past two decades.
New area of knowledge 1: Recovery People personally affected by mental illness have become increasingly vocal in communicating both what their life is like with the mental illness and what helps in moving beyond the role of a patient with mental illness. Early accounts were written by individual pioneers [ 7 - 12 ].
These brave, and sometimes oppositional and challenging, voices provide ecologically valid pointers to what recovery looks and feels like from the inside. Once individual stories were more visible, compilations and syntheses of these accounts began to emerge from around the especially Anglophone world, e.
The understanding of recovery which has emerged from these accounts emphasises the centrality of hope, identity, meaning and personal responsibility [ 13 , 24 , 25 ]. We will refer to this consumer-based understanding of recovery as personal recovery, to reflect its individually defined and experienced nature [ 26 ]. This contrasts with traditional clinical imperatives - which we will refer to as clinical recovery- which emphasise the invariant importance of symptomatology, social functioning, relapse prevention and risk management.
To note, this distinction has been referred to by other writers as recovery "from" versus recovery "in" [ 27 ]; clinical recovery versus social recovery [ 28 ]; scientific versus consumer models of recovery [ 29 ]; and service-based recovery versus user-based recovery [ 30 ].
Opinions in the consumer literature about recovery are wide-ranging, and cannot be uniformly characterised. This multiplicity of perspectives in itself has a lesson for mental health services - no one approach works for, or 'fits', everyone.